“He has deliberately failed to promise, offer or give to a staff member, directly or indirectly, an unjustified advantage for the official himself or any other natural or legal person, in order for the official to act or refrain from doing so in the performance of his or her official duties.” 138 C. Nicchols et al., Corruption and Misuse of Public Office, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, para. 1.01.139 Oxford English Dictionary.140 Transparency International FAQs on Corruption, available at www.transparency.org/whoweare/organisation/ faqs_on_corruption.141 Oxford English Dictionary.142 See art. 15 (a) of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, International Legal Materials, Vol. 43 (2004), p. 37, which, on 14 , `The promise, offer or grant of an unjustified advantage to an official, directly or indirectly, to the official himself or to any other natural or legal person, in order for the official to act or refrain from doing so in the performance of his official duties`. (Highlighted only here.) 143 The distinction between corruption “according to the rule” and corruption “against the rule” is the approach taken by Transparency International.144 H. Raeschke-Kessler and D. Gottwald, a.
o. 60, p. 587 and.145 B. A. Garner (eds.), Black`s Law Dictionary, 9th essay, West Group, 2009, “Fraud” (p. 731).146 Lincoln Land FS v. Mau (In re Mau), 293 BR 919, 923 (Bankr. CD I11.
2003.147 Cf. z.B. P. V. Tytell, “The Detection of Forgery Fraud”, to A. J. van den Berg, a.o.a. Fn. 41, p. 315.148 “Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: Recommendation of the Council on Corruption in International Business Transactions, 27 May 1994”, International Legal Materials, Bd. 33 (1994), S. 1389; “Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: Council Recommendation C(96) 27/final on the tax deductibility of bribes paid to foreign public officials of 11 April 1996”, International Legal Materials, Bd.
35 (1996), S. 1311. 149 OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, a. A. Fn. 79.150Interamerikanisches Übereinkommen gegen Korruption vom 29. März 1996, International Legal Materials, Bd. 35 (1996), S. 727, available from www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/b-58.html.151European Union Convention on the Fight against Corruption involving officials of the European Community or of the Member States, 26 May 1997, Official Journal (C 195), p. 2 et seq.
The Convention was signed on 28 September 2005 est entré en vigueur le 1er septembre 2005. Le texte complet est disponible à eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:41997A0625%2801%29:EN:HTML. . . .